以文本方式查看主题

-  汉唐论坛  (http://info.sxhm.com/bbs/index.asp)
--  时空隧道(进入)  (http://info.sxhm.com/bbs/list.asp?boardid=16)
----  人类历史上的十次残暴大屠杀  (http://info.sxhm.com/bbs/dispbbs.asp?boardid=16&id=120841)

--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:54:00

--  人类历史上的十次残暴大屠杀
尽管我们很难对何为"大屠杀"进行精确的定义,但是大体来讲,"大屠杀"就是指对某一特定人种,民族,宗教团体甚至一个国家的蓄意毁灭。不论是在古时期社会还是在现代社会,大屠杀发生在地球上的世界各地,而且未来仍然有可能还会发生。大屠杀发生的原因多种多样,可能是出于对土地和资源的占有,也可能只是出于一个男人的某种疯子般的个人憎恨。一些科学家通过长时间的深入研究,声称"尼安德特人"的灭绝就是大屠杀所致。以下是人类历史上十次最残暴的大屠杀:

--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:55:00

--  
第十名:安法尔大屠杀



The Kurds are an ancient Iranian ethnicity spread out across several nations in the Middle East. It is estimated that just under twenty percent of Iraq\'s population is Kurdish, with most settlements in the northern part of the country. They have historically been at odds with the government of Iraq, and tensions came to a head during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s, when Saddam Hussein\'s Ba\'athist regime perpetrated the al-Anfal Campaign. The campaign was led by Hussein\'s cousin, Ali Hassan al-Majid, whose use of mustard gas, sarin, and VX nerve gas among other substances earned him the nickname "Chemical Ali." It is estimated that more than 180,000 Kurds were killed, with several thousand more still unaccounted for. Chemical Ali was captured by the American military and executed for war crimes, including his role in the Kurdish genocide.

库尔德人是一个遍布中东多个国家的古老的伊朗种族。据估算包括伊拉克北部的绝大部分移民在内,库尔德人几乎占伊拉克人口的20%。库尔德人由于历史原因一直与伊拉克政府不和,而这种关系在20世纪80年代的伊朗与伊拉克战争期间达到紧张状态。就在此时,萨达姆·侯赛因领导的阿拉伯复兴社会党发动了"安法尔行动"。这次行动是由萨达姆的表弟——阿里·哈桑·马吉德指挥的。阿里·哈桑·马吉德因热衷于使用芥子气、沙林毒气、VX神经毒气而得到了"化学阿里"的绰号。据估算,在"安法尔行动"期间有超过18万库尔德人被杀,还有数千人下落不明。"化学阿里"于2003年的伊拉克战争中被美军捕获并因战争罪行连同他在库尔德人大屠杀中的罪行被处死。


--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:55:00

--  
第九名:莫里奥里人的种族灭绝



The Maori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. They have dwelled in the area for some eight hundred years. About five hundred years ago, a group of Maori migrated to the nearby Chatham Islands, where they began their own society that focused on peaceful living. They called themselves the Moriori. The remaining, warlike Maori tribes soon came into contact with Americans and Europeans, and while initial meetings sometimes ended in cannibalization of the foreigners, the Maoris highly valued Western guns—so trade flourished. Beginning in 1835, the now well-armed Maori arrived at the Chatham Islands, where they proceeded to murder and devour their defenseless cousins. Those who survived were enslaved, and forced to intermarry with the Maori. In less than thirty years from the moment of contact, there were only 101 Moriori left. The last pure-blooded Moriori died in 1933.

新西兰的土著毛利人。他们曾经在这个区域居住了800年,大约500年前,一支毛利人的部落迁移到查塔姆群岛附近,开始专心的创造和平共处的社会。他们称自己为莫里奥里人。其余好战的毛利人很快同美国人与欧洲人进行了接触,虽然最开始的见面各个国家的人总是争得你死我活,但毛利人十分重视西方的枪支——所以进行了频繁的贸易。1835年开始,装备精良的毛利人抵达了查塔姆群岛,在那里进行了屠杀,灭绝了岛上毫无防备的同族人。活着的人被奴役,强迫与毛利人进行通婚。不到30年,莫里奥里人只剩下了101个。1933年,最后一个纯种莫里奥里人去世。


--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:56:00

--  
第八名:卢旺达种族大屠杀



Like the Maori and Moriori, the Hutus and the Tutsi likely originated from common ancestors—offshoots of the Bantu people. In fact, there was little delineation between the two at all before the arrival of Belgian and German imperialists. The Europeans divided the two groups mostly by economic status, with Tutsis being wealthier (the ownership of ten cattle being the base requirement). Indeed, if a Hutu came into money, he could change his status to that of a Tutsi. For many years, the Tutsi were the prevailing class in Rwanda, enforcing their rule in some cases with great violence against the Hutu people. But in the early 1990s a revolt began, which saw Hutus engaging in the wholesale slaughter of Tutsis. Hundreds of thousands were killed—the preferred method of execution being the machete, as ammunition was too expensive and difficult to come by. Rape, mutilation, and the deliberate spread of disease were also used as tools of terror. There are highly divergent accounts of the final body count, with some people claiming that there were five hundred thousand victims, and others that there were well over a million.

就如同毛利人和 莫里奥里人,胡图人和图西人源于同族——都是班图人的分支。事实上。在比利时与德国入侵前两族几乎没有区别。欧洲使用经济地位将其分裂了成了两个团体、图西族更为富有(基本要求是所有者拥有10头家畜)。甚至如果胡图人赚了钱,他会将种族改为图西。多年后,图西族在卢旺达占据了统治地位。他们强制使用法律侵犯压榨胡图人。但是在90年代初期,胡图人发起了起义,大量的胡图人参与了对图西族大规模的屠杀中。成千上万的人被杀——他们更偏爱的屠杀方式是使用弯刀,因为炮弹太昂贵也太难入手。强奸,焚尸,用可怕的工具故意传播疾病。最后计算伤亡的时候有较大的分歧,一些人声称有50万受害者,其他人认为超过了100万。


--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:56:00

--  
第七名:爱尔兰马铃薯大饥荒



While the British cannot be directly blamed for the blight which caused the Irish Potato Famine, many historians have argued that their failure to act could be construed as an act of genocide. For centuries, there has been bad blood between the largely British and the Catholic Irish, continuing to this day with the actions of separatist groups like the Irish Republican Army. Ireland was a fertile land, and had for many years exported crops to England. When the Irish had been threatened by blights in the past, England had closed its ports to exports, allowing the Irish to maintain a food supply. But this time—even as hundreds of thousands of people began dying of disease and starvation between 1846-1852—no regulations were established. Wealthy British landowners kicked farmers off their land, when they were unable to pay rent. As a result, over a million Irish died, and another million were forced to emigrate.

虽然世人不能把导致爱尔兰马铃薯大饥荒的农作物病害直接归咎于英国人头上,但是许多历史学家认为英国人当时的错误行径使这场饥荒可以被认定为是一场大屠杀。几个世纪以来, 英国的新教徒和爱尔兰的天主教徒一直彼此仇恨。因此衍生出像爱尔兰共和军这样的主张独立的组织一直活跃至今。爱尔兰拥有一片片肥沃的土地,常年向英国出口农作物。19世纪时,当爱尔兰被马铃薯病害所威胁的时候,英国封闭了爱尔兰的出口港口,允许爱尔兰人进行食物自给以自救。 但是仅在1846年至1852年之间,就有几十万人死于疾病和饥荒,而英国政府几乎没有施行任何有效的救助措施。当农民付不起地租时,富有的英国地主就把他们赶出了自己的家园。结果,一百多万的爱尔兰人死亡,还有一百多万的爱尔兰人被迫移民。


--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:57:00

--  
第六名:俾格米人大屠杀



The pygmy tribes are found in central Africa, and while they comprise several tribes, the general term is used to describe people whose adult males are less than fifty-nine inches tall. Although there are several theories as to the reason for their tiny stature, no one has truly pinpointed the reason. The pygmies, who are a largely primitive, forest dwelling people, have suffered terribly during Congolese civil wars fought in the region. Pygmy representatives have appealed desperately to the United Nations, claiming that rebel factions such as the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo have been hunting and cannibalizing their people as though they were wild animals. There are only an estimated 500,000 pygmies remaining, and their numbers are sharply declining in the face of slaughter and deforestation.

俾格米人部族发源于非洲中部。当他们的部落成型后,因为其成年男子的平均身高还不到59英寸而成为"侏儒"的代名词。尽管已经有理论试图阐述俾格米人为什么个子这么小,但是没有人能探究出其真正的原因。俾格米人原本生活在热带丛林里。而就是这些庞大的、原始的部落,在刚果内战期间却经历了地狱般的苦难。俾格米代表曾近乎绝望般地向联合国呼吁,声称刚果解放运动的反政府武装把俾格米人视为野生动物来猎杀并吃掉。据估算现在世界上只有大约50万俾格米人,而且他们的人数因为屠杀和森林砍伐正在大幅削减。


--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:57:00

--  
第五名:印第安人大屠杀



It is impossible to determine exactly how many natives were present in the Americas before the arrival of Christopher Columbus; but even conservative estimates usually put the number at a minimum of one million. In the years following 1492, a deluge of Europeans arrived, each wave more determined than the last to seize control of the New World\'s vast natural resources. The only thing standing in their way were the native populations, who, as it turned out, weren\'t always willing to share. In South America, Francisco Pizarro slaughtered the Inca. In Mexico, Hernán Cortés destroyed the Aztecs. But most devastating of all to the native populations was disease—notably smallpox—for which they had no immunity. Whether or not the Europeans intentionally sought to infect the indigenous people is a highly contentious point—but regardless, the result was horrifying.Millions and millions of natives perished, to the point where wolves were devouring them alive as they writhed in their villages. Today, the population of Native Americans is widely scattered, and many tribes and ancient customs have been lost forever.

我们无法考证在克里斯托弗·哥伦布到达美洲之前到底有多少印第安人曾生活在这片土地上,但是就算保守估算至少也有100万人左右。自1492年后,一波又一波的欧洲人大量涌入美洲,每一波都比上一波人更加野心勃勃的想要占有这个"新世界"的大量而丰富的自然资源。而唯一阻挡他们掠夺之路的就是当地的土著人——用历史证明不愿意把自己的家园拱手相让的印第安人。在南美洲,弗朗西斯科·皮萨罗屠杀了印加人。在墨西哥,柯南·科尔蒂斯屠杀了阿兹特克人。但是对于全体印第安人来说最具毁灭性的是瘟疫——尤其是印第安人毫无免疫力的天花。关于印第安人感染瘟疫病毒是否是由欧洲人蓄意传播一直都被争论不休,但是无论如何,其结果都是惨绝人寰的。数百万的印第安人死亡,他们因感染瘟疫而在自己的村庄里痛苦地爬来爬去,最后被闯入的狼群活活吞食。时至今日,虽然幸存的印第安人广泛的分布在拉美各地,但是许多部族和传统文化都永远的消失了。


--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:58:00

--  
第四名:澳大利亚土著人"被偷走的一代"



The Aborigines are among the most ancient races in all the world. Recent DNA tests indicate that they are of Asian origin, having arrived in Australia 50,000 years ago or more. Beginning in 1909 (and continuing into the 1970s), the Australian government instituted a policy of removing Aboriginal children from their parents. The precise motivation behind this program is still up for debate, with some claiming they were taken in order to "protect" them from the primitive ways of their parents. Others believe that the children were taken to either prevent miscegenation with whites, or to encourage it—the aim in both cases being to destroy any trace of their native heritage. Historians debate whether this constituted genocide at all, but in 2008, the Australian government proffered a formal apology to the "stolen generation."

澳大利亚土著人是世界上最古老的种族之一。近年的基因检测表明澳大利亚土著人的祖先是亚洲人,在5万年前来到澳大利亚,甚至更早。自1909年开始至20世纪70年代结束,澳大利亚政府制定了一项政策——把澳洲土著儿童从他们的父母身边夺走。很多人对这项计划背后的确切动机仍有不同意见。有人声称这样做是为了让这些孩子远离他们原始的父母以开化他们。还有一些人认为带走这些孩子要么是为了防止土著人与白人混种,要么就是"想"让他们与白人混种,但是这两者的目的都是一样的——同化土著人和摧毁土著传统文明。许多历史学家互相争论这种行为是否可以被视为一场大屠杀(据估算有约10万儿童从父母身边被夺走)。而在2008年,澳大利亚政府发表声明针对此行为向澳洲土著人正式表示道歉。


--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:58:00

--  
第三名:亚美尼亚大屠杀



The Ottoman Empire, whose center point during its declining years was modern-day Turkey, was responsible for a great many human rights violations—none more horrifying than the Armenian Genocide. Beginning in 1915, while the rest of the world was distracted by World War One, the Ottomans turned fiercely on the Armenians, a Christian minority. Although not so nearly well known as the Holocaust, this genocide was every bit as horrible. Able-bodied men were slaughtered, and women and children were forced to embark on death marches through the Syrian desert. Entire villages were burned to the ground with their inhabitants still inside, and boatloads of Armenians were taken out into the Black Sea and sunk. There were at least two dozen concentration camps established, where poisoning and gassing occurred. Innocent children were injected by Turkish doctors with the blood of typhoid fever patients. Again, the true death counts are up for debate, but estimates of between 600,000 and 1.8 million dead Armenians have been advanced.

奥斯曼帝国——其衰落时期的中心区域即为今天的土耳其共和国,是历史上最残忍、最恐怖的大屠杀之一——亚美尼亚大屠杀的罪魁祸首。1915年,当全世界的目光都聚焦在第一次世界大战时,奥斯曼帝国却开始对国内的亚美尼亚人——一个信仰基督教的少数群体实施残酷暴行。尽管这场"浩劫"由于种种原因一直鲜为人知,但这场大屠杀确实是太过惨绝人寰。奥斯曼帝国将健壮的亚美尼亚男子杀害,强迫妇女和小孩穿越叙利亚沙漠以进行"死亡行进"。奥斯曼帝国将国内的亚美尼亚村庄被连村带人完全烧光。随后,亚美尼亚人被一船一船的运到黑海,然后被淹死。奥斯曼帝国至少建立了二十几个集中营。亚美尼人在集中营里被集中以投毒或毒气的方式毒杀。土耳其医生把患有伤寒病病人的血液注射进无辜的儿童身体里面。而现今,这场大屠杀的确切死亡人数因一直被争论不休而不断上涨,但基本估算是在60万人到180万人之间。


--  作者:寄墨语滴
--  发布时间:2016/5/13 10:58:00

--  
第二名:波黑塞族共和国大屠杀



The fall of the Soviet Union had far-ranging sociopolitical consequences, none more devastating than in former Yugoslavia. Beginning in 1990, the country began splintering into republics, leading to intense ethnic tensions and population displacement. The worst of the crimes occurred in the newly-formed Bosnia, with General Ratko Mladić of the Army of Republika Srpska leading the execution of thousands of Bosnian Muslims and Serbs in an attempt to "ethnically cleanse" the area. A measure of peace in the area was finally established in 1995, but only in the wake of more than twenty thousand casualties—most of them the result of executions, fires, rapes, and even public beheadings.

前苏联的解体对世界造成了广泛且深远的影响,尤其是给前南斯拉夫造成了灾难性的冲击。自1990年,前南斯拉夫开始陆续分解成各自独立的共和国,从而导致了惨烈的民族冲突和人口迁徙。而在新成立的波黑共和国发生了最恶劣的惨剧。波黑的政治实体之一——塞族共和国军队的拉姆特·姆拉迪奇将军发动了一场大屠杀,以试图对塞族共和国进行"种族清洗"。这场屠杀杀害了成千上万的穆斯林和塞尔维亚人。在此期间,超过两万多人被枪杀、烧死、强奸、甚至在公开场合被斩首示众。最后,塞族共和国在1995年才大致恢复了和平局面。