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有意思的水系名称(二)——为什么叫“汉族”?
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The Interesting Names Of  Rivers In China : Why is the nationality of the most population of China called Han Zu (汉族Han nationality)
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China is a multinational country with 56 nations caculated by the central government from 1950s to 1970s. Han Zu (汉族) nationality possesses the most population and occupies an important place in Chinese history. The Chines character “Zu” () means nationality, so Han Zu means the Han nationality in English. Ok, there is a question, why was this nationality called “Han” (), and which relationship was between the name and the river such as the title of this article? I have an idea, we can trace the primal origin of this name through the four questions follow.
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1. What is the origin of the name of “Han Zu” (汉族,the Han nationality)?
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The name of “Han Zu” appeared in The Letter To Consuls Of Foreign Countries wrote by Li Shixian who was one of the kings of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1851-1864) which was the regime opposed to the Qing Empire. After Xinhai Revolution, the name had been emphasized for consolidating unity of nationalities, modifying social contradiction and fighting against foreign invaders. At that time, the government and intellectuals came up with the concept of five-nationality unity for a republic including Han Zu, Man Zu (Manchu), Menggu Zu (Mongolian), Hui Zu (Muslim) and Zhuang Zu (Zhuang nationality).
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Before 1880s, there was not the concept about Zu (nationality) in China, nationalities was called Ren () meaning person in English, such as Han Ren, Man Ren (Manchu), Menggu Ren (Mongolian), and so on. There was more meaning of country than nationality in this concept of Ren referring to group. Accordingly the name of Han Zu resulted from the name of Han Ren.
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2. What is the origin of the name of “Han Ren” (汉人)?
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The name of “Han Ren” has used for more than two thousand years because of Han dynasty which was the first world-wide empire in China from 202 B.C. to A.D.220. At that time the relationship was built between Han Empire and other regions such as Hun, Korea, western regions (Xinjiang province in China today) etc. through wars, trade, marriage and so on. So the people of these regions called Chinese Han Ren meaning the people ruled under Han Empire. In the Northern and Southern Dynasties (A.D. 420-589) in China, many nationalities came into the central region of China from Northern and Northwestern outside China, they called these people Han Ren referring to a tribe who spoke Han Yu (the language of Han dynasty , also called Chinese today), wore Han Fu (Clothes of Han dynasty) and kept to Han Li (Etiquette of Han dynasty) so as to distinguish different races. So these people were called Han Ren because of Han Empire.
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3. What was about the name of Han Empire (汉朝)?
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The founder of Han Empire was Liu Bang, a leader of one of the farmer insurgents in later period of Qin Empire(221-206 B.C.). His army was the first one of the insurgents occupying the capital of Qin Empire, Xianyang, in the Guanzhong Plain (also called the Region of Wei River in Shaanxi province now ) after the Emperor of Qinsurrendered. The leader of the alliance of the farmer insurgents, Chuhuai King, used to promise that the person who was the first one into Guanzhong would be the King of Guanzhong meaning the king ruling the Guanzhong Plain, the middle region in China. But Liu Bang afraided that he would become the enemy of his competitor, Xiang Yu, another leader of a farmer insurgent which was the most powerful army at that time, therefore he abandoned Guanzhong and left it to Xiang Yu.
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After Xiang Yu occupied Guanzhong, he was called Xichu Overlord by himself because he thought there hadn’t been opponents for him in the world, and given the title of King and manors to eighteen generals who had contributions to the war aganist Qin Empire. The manor of Liu Bang included Hanzhong (汉中,the south outside Guanzhong, in Shaanxi province today), Ba (in Chongqing city today) and Shu (in Sichuan province today), so the title of Liu Bang was the King of Hanzhong (汉中王), called Han King (汉王) for short in Chinese. After he defeated Xiang Yu and founded a regime, he named this new empire Han by the name of his former title, Han King.

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